Revue fran aise de droit administratif
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Public Sector Reform
Deregulation, privatization and marketization have become the bywords for the reforms and debates surrounding the public sector. This major book is unique in its comparative analysis of the reform experience in Western and Eastern Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Leading experts identify a number of key factors to systematically explain the similarities and differences, map common problems and together reflect on the future shape of the public sector, exploring significant themes in a lively and accessible way.
The Judge and the Proportionate Use of Discretion
This book examines different legal systems and analyses how the judge in each of them performs a meaningful review of the proportional use of discretionary powers by public bodies. Although the proportionality test is not equally deep-rooted in the literature and case-law of France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, this principle has assumed an increasing importance partly due to the influence of the European Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights. In the United States, different standards of judicial review are applied to review ‘arbitrary and capricious’ agency discretion. However, do US judges achieve a similar result to the proportionality or reasonableness test? Drawing together a selection of key experts in the field, this book analyses the principle of proportionality in the judicial review of administrative decisions from different perspectives. The principle is first examined in the context of recent developments in the literature and case-law, including the inevitable EU influence, then light shall be shed on the meaning of this principle in the specific case-law of the European Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the authors go on to explore the ways in which US judges consciously ‘sanction’ the ‘disproportionate’ and/or unreasonable’ use of agency discretion. In the legal systems where the proportionality test plays a very limited role, Ranchordás and de Waard also try to clarify why this is the case and look at what alternative solutions have been found. This book will be of great interest to scholars of public and administrative law, and EU law.
The existence of interactions between different but overlapping legal systems has always presented challenges to black letter law. This is particularly true of the relationship between international law and domestic law and the relationship between federal law and the laws of individual federation members. Moreover some organisations have created their own supranational constitutional systems: the United Nations Charter is the best known, and is often referred to as the 'World Constitution', but the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg views the European Treaties as a 'Constitutional Charter' for Europe, while the European Court of Human Rights has defined the European Convention on Human Rights as a constitutional instrument of 'European public order'. It is in the dynamic relationship between domestic constitutional laws, EU law, the ECHR and the UN Charter that the most persistent difficulties arise. In this context 'interordinal instability' not only provokes strong academic interest, but also affects what has been called 'governance' or 'global government' and undermines both legal certainty and individual fundamental rights. Different solutions - constitutionalist and pluralist - have been explored, but none of them has received global acceptance. In this book Luis Gordillo analyses the interordinal instabilities which arise at the European level, focusing on three main strands of case law and their implications: Solange, Bosphorus and Kadi. To solve the difficulties caused by this instability Gordillo proposes a form of soft constitutionalism, which he calls 'interordinal constitutionalism', as a means to bring order and stability to global legal governance. The original Spanish thesis on which this book is based was awarded the Nicolás Pérez Serrano Prize by the Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, for the best dissertation in constitutional law 2009-2010.
The End of the French Unitary State
In 1981, the newly elected socialist government of France announced a "vast programme of decentralization". The reforms have changed the politico-administrative landscape of France. This volume asks what changes - if any - occurred and looks at the implications for French public policy-making.
The Age of Dignity
Human dignity is one of the most challenging and exciting ideas for lawyers and political philosophers in the twenty-first century. Even though it is rapidly emerging as a core concept across legal systems, and is the first foundational value of the European Union and its overarching human rights commitment under the Lisbon Treaty, human dignity is still little understood and often mistrusted. Based on extensive comparative and cross-disciplinary research, this path-breaking monograph provides an innovative and critical investigation of human dignity's origins, development and above all its potential at the heart of European constitutionalism today. Grounding its analysis in the connections among human dignity, human rights, constitutional law and democracy, this book argues that human dignity's varied and increasing uses point to a deep transformation of European constitutionalism. At its heart are the construction and protection of constitutional time, and the multi-dimensional definition of humanity as human beings, citizens and workers. Anchored in a detailed comparative study of case law, including the two European supranational courts and domestic constitutional courts, especially those of Germany, the UK, France and Hungary, this monograph argues for a new understanding of European constitutionalism as a form of humanism.
This essential resource provides students with an introduction to the rules and principles of criminal procedure law. This text uses a case study approach to help students develop the analytical skills necessary to understand the origins, context, and evolutions of the law; concentrates on US Supreme Court decisions interpreting both state and federal constitutions; and introduces students to the reference materials and strategies used for basic legal research.
The Black Book
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L int gration Du Droit International Et Communautaire Dans L ordre Juridique National
Just how International and European Community Law is being integrated into domestic legal systems is as yet not too well known. To gain a clear overview of this grey area requires more than knowing about the various constitutional rules. What is also needed is a study of little-known administrative practices and the attitudes of the national courts, where case-law is often as complex as it is diverse. When all these elements are taken into account, the general picture that emerges is a much more subtle one, transcending the classical positions based on the theories of monism and dualism. To grasp this reality and go beyond preconceived ideas, it seemed indispensable to make a thorough analysis of national practices. To this end, the International Law Centre of the University of Paris XIII (Cedin Paris XIII) took the initiative, in 1990, of setting up a network of European international lawyers to work on the theme International norms and legal barriers'. This book presents the outcome of the network's programme. The research was organized on the basis of a single questionnaire which provided the outline of a common workplan, to which each of the contributors has adhered. Detailed comparisons of national practices can now be made, relating in particular to international treaties, acts of international organisations and of the European Communities, and to unwritten international law. This is the first time that such a comprehensive and detailed survey has been made of all thirteen countries. Reading the national reports one after the other provides complete information on domestic practices; reading them crosswise gives a direct comparison between the different countries on specificissues.