The Principles of European Contract Law
Throughout Europe there is great interest in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects.
The Principles of European Contract Law Part III and Dutch Law
The Principles of European Contract Law, prepared by the so-called Lando Commission, today constitute the most advanced project on the harmonisation of European private law. As well as providing a set of rules which could facilitate cross-border trade within Europe, the Principles can be seen as a modern lex mercatoria which, for example, could be referred to by arbitrators deciding a case according to internationally accepted principles of law. Furthermore, the Principles provide a framework for EU legislation on contract law and, more importantly, they can be viewed as a first step towards a European Civil Code. They may also prove to be a catalyst for the development of national legislation, judicial decisions and legal doctrine. This new title, which follows the first volume covering Parts I and II of the Principles, includes chapters on plurality of parties, assignment of claims, transfer of contract, set-off, prescription, illegality and conditions. It provides a systematic overview of the Principles in comparison with Dutch law, which will be of interest not only in the Netherlands but also to lawyers in other countries who need to gain a clearer understanding of the Dutch contract law system.
Principles of European Contract Law and Italian Law
To provide valuable legal service to persons in today's Europe, practitioners must be conversant in both national and transnational law. At the European level, the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) are an increasingly important element of contract law, together with national contract law, as contained in Civil Codes and various national statute. Accordingly, Kluwer Law International has initiated a series of volumes, under the direction of prof. Hondius of the University of Utrecht, comparing PECL with the most important European legal systems. This volume on Italian law is the second in the series. Using a straightforward comparative method, the editors¿ analysis not only reveals a significant area of convergence between the PECL and Italian contract law, but also highlights the main differences between the two bodies of rules. The reasons for these differences, both legal and non-legal (such as historical, social, economic), are clearly set forth. The book provides complete texts, with annotations, of the PECL and the corresponding Italian rules. The presentation proceeds as follows: general provisions (scope of application, general duties, terminology) formation of contracts (general provisions, offer and acceptance, liability for negotiations) authority of agents (general provisions, direct and indirect representation) validity interpretation contents and effects performance non-performance and remedies in general particular remedies for non-performance (right to performance, withholding performance, termination of the contract, price reduction, damages and interest) The editors commentary includes extensive reference to case law and legal doctrine at all essential points. In this way they provide a comprehensive description of the law in action as well as its evolving trends. In addition, incisive essays by two leading experts in the field of comparative law, prof. Rodolfo Sacco and prof. Michael Joachim Bonell, analyse the relationship of the PECL and Italian law and its wider framework in the harmonisation of private law at the European and international levels. The book is a valuable handbook and guide for both foreign and Italian lawyers. For non-Italian lawyers, be they practitioners or academics, it provides a concise but complete and up-to-date outline of current Italian contract law, organized on the basis of a system (PECL) with which many European lawyers are familiar. For Italian lawyers, it offers a clearer insight into a wider European legal contract system whose importance in the evolution of a common European private law is growing rapidly. Principles of European Contract Law Series 2
Good Faith in European Contract Law
For some Western European legal systems the principle of good faith has proved central to the development of their law of contracts, while in others it has been marginalized or even rejected. This book starts by surveying the use or neglect of good faith in these legal systems and explaining its historical origins. The central part of the book takes thirty situations which would, in some legal systems, attract the application of good faith, analyses them according to fifteen national legal systems and assesses the practical significance of both the principle of good faith and its relationship to other contractual and non-contractual doctrines and forms of regulation in each situation. The book concludes by explaining how European lawyers, whether from a civil or common law background, may need to come to terms with the principle of good faith. This was the first completed project of The Common Core of European Private Law launched at the University of Trento.
The Need for a European Contract Law
The aim of this book is to discuss the need for a uniform contract law in Europe. At present it is debated to what extent uniformity of law is required from the economic perspective. The view of the European Commission seems to be that diversity of law stands in the way of a proper functioning of the internal market, but this view does not seem to be shared by business: in the reactions to the 'Communication on European Contract Law (2001), it was striking to see that most companies do not consider the present diversity to be a true barrier to trade. This book offers five different perspectives on the need for a uniform contract law. These perspectives include economics, behavioral law and economics, psychology and law.
Constitutional Values and European Contract Law
Two major developments in European Private and European Business Law come together when we speak about "Constitutional Values and European Contract Law". European Contract Law has become extreme¬ly dynamic over the last 10 years, both in substance and perspec¬tive: all core areas are considered now in legal science and in EC legislation, and there are even the prospects of some kind of codification. On the other hand, constitutional values and their impact on private law have been an issue of high concern in major Member States over decades, namely Italy and Germany, but as well the Netherlands - hence the strong presence of scholars and practising lawyers from these countries in this book. Constitutional values have, however, found their way to the EC level and the national discussions have inspired a European one, with three core values discussed: Fundamental Freedoms, fundamental rights and constitutional system building principles- such as the social welfare state or the rule of law. Their impact on private law can be sensed nowadays quite considerably also on the European level. These fundamental values are often seen as the ingredient, which renders European Private Law, namely European Contract Law, more responsive to social values or more "humane". For all these reasons, the book combines comparative law, EC Law and interdisciplinary approaches to the question "Constitutional Values and European Contract Law". Outstanding scholars from six Member States and beyond - quite a few also practising lawyers - discuss the issue and do so for the first time on such a broad and all encompassing basis.
Indirect Representation in European Contract Law
Over the last few years increasing attention continues to be paid to the Principles of European Contract Law (otherwise known as the Principles, the Lando Principles or PECL). The drafters of the Principles presented their work in the form of articles accompanied by explanatory notes, averring that the main purpose of the instrument is to serve as a basis for a future European contract law. Can the Lando Principles, as their drafters claim, indeed offer an acceptable basis for a future European contract law? Dr. Busch, both scholar and practitioner, offers a detailed analysis, in response to this question, of the contractual aspects of indirect representation (Arts. 3:301-304 PECL). He evaluates these provisions in the light of Dutch, German, and English law, as well as with reference to the Geneva Convention on Agency in the International Sale of Goods. To introduce this important comparative study and make the background as complete as possible, this book devotes separate chapters to thorough discussions of indirect representation in Dutch law (middellijke vertegenwoordiging Arts. 7:419-421 Dutch Civil Code), in German law (mittelbare Stellvertretung) and in the English doctrine of the undisclosed principal. Lawyers in Europe and elsewhere who must deal with contract law in any connection, will find this thoroughly researched and well-thought-out text to be indispensable. Its value as a scholarly analysis can only grow with the coming years. D. Busch (b. 1974) graduated (cum laude) in Dutch law from the University of Utrecht in 1997. He attained the title of Magister Juris in European and Comparative Law at the University of Oxford (St. John's College) in 1998, and defended his dissertation in 2002 at the University of Utrecht. Until the end of 2001 he was attached as lecturer and researcher to the Molengraaff Institute of Private Law in Utrecht. Since 2002 he has worked as an attorney-at-law for the law office of De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek in Amsterdam. He has also been an honorary senior lecturer at the Molengraaff Institute since 2004. Principles of European Contract Law 3
European Contract Law
The Association Henri Capitant des Amis de la Culture Juridique Française and the Société de législation comparée joined the academic network on European Contract Law in 2005 to work on the elaboration of a "common terminology" and on "guiding principles" as well as to propose a revised version of the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL). The results of this work were sent to the European Commission and have already been published in French. The English translation is now being published by sellier.elp. This work could contribute to the wider European project. The part on the guiding principles could be a component of the CFR, in the form of "black letter" model rules or recitals. The part on terminology is, in itself, useful for the elaboration of the final various linguistic versions of the CFR. It finds its place within the materials which will accompany the model rules. Last but by no means least, the revised version of the PECL should be considered by the European institutions as an alternative set of model rules on contract law.
Financial Services Financial Crisis and General European Contract Law
Speculation is rife on the origins of the worldwide financial crisis of 2008, with a preponderance focusing on alleged shortcomings in corporate governance. This book offers a distinct yet complementary perspective: that the most useful path to follow, if we want to understand what happened and forestall its happening again, is through an analysis of contract relationships - specifically, banking contracts entered into in the financial services sector, considered under the rubric of contract law rather than company law. Because banking is the area of European contract law which is most thoroughly developed, banking contracts can be seen as paradigmatic of typical assumptions and shortcomings often examined in the more general debate on contract law. And indeed, the very thoroughness of European banking contract law makes it a promising ground on which to build effective preventive measures. In this book thirteen noted scholars, recognizing that modern contract law must take into account global markets and risks, consider banking contracts within networks and within mass transactions. Always attending to the long-term relationships that characterize financial services contracts, they focus on such cross-sector issues as the following: rule-setting and the question of who should best regulate and at which level; networks of contracts as the backbone of a market economy; the complex interplay between market regulation and traditional contract law; avoiding erroneous assumptions about the future development of prices; the passing on of the risk via securitization; rating relationships affected by conflicts of interests; remuneration problems; core duties of information and advice in an agency relationship in services; fiduciary duties of loyalty and care; types of clients and level of protection; differentiation in information available on various markets; and the question of enforcement.
The Constitutional Foundations of European Contract Law
Situated within the context of the ongoing debate about European contract law, this book provides a detailed examination of the European Union's competence in the field of contract law. It analyses the limits of Union competence in relation to several relevant Treaty provisions which potentially confer competence on the Union to adopt a comprehensive contract law instrument and the exercise of Union competence in connection with the operation of the principles of subsidiarity, proportionality and sincere cooperation. It also explores the viability of several alternative and complementary routes to the adoption of such an instrument, including enhanced cooperation, an intergovernmental treaty and certain American techniques. Setting forth an elaborate account of the context for this debate and its chronological development at the European level, this book charts the discussions relating to the European Union's competence to regulate contract law and offers a comparative analysis of the approach taken to the approximation of contract law in the American setting. Setting forth a detailed account of the context for this debate and its chronological development at the European level, the book charts the discussions that have occurred within and outside the EU relating to the transnational competence to regulate contract law. Situating European constitutional law within the continued debate about European contract law, it also reflects upon the contract law structure of the United States and examines the viability of alternative and complementary routes to the adoption of a comprehensive instrument of substantive contract law.