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Biological Delay Systems

In studying the dynamics of populations, whether of animals, plants or cells, it is crucial to allow for delays such as those due to gestation, maturation or transport. This book deals with a fundamental question in the analysis of the effects of delays, namely whether they affect the stability of steady states.

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Complex Time Delay Systems

One of the major contemporary challenges in both physical and social sciences is modeling, analyzing, and understanding the self-organization, evolution, behavior, and eventual decay of complex dynamical systems ranging from cell assemblies to the human brain to animal societies. The multi-faceted problems in this domain require a wide range of methods from various scienti?c disciplines. There is no question that the inclusion of time delays in complex system models considerably enriches the challenges presented by the problems. Although this inclusion often becomes inevitable as real-world applications demand more and more realistic m- els, the role of time delays in the context of complex systems so far has not attracted the interest it deserves. The present volume is an attempt toward ?lling this gap. There exist various useful tools for the study of complex time-delay systems. At the forefront is the mathematical theory of delay equations, a relatively mature ?eld in many aspects, which provides some powerful techniques for analytical inquiries, along with some other tools from statistical physics, graph theory, computer science, dynamical systems theory, probability theory, simulation and optimization software, and so on. Nevertheless, the use of these methods requires a certain synergy to address complex systems problems, especially in the presence of time delays.

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Advances in Time Delay Systems

In the mathematical description of a physical or biological process, it is a common practice \0 assume that the future behavior of Ihe process considered depends only on the present slate, and therefore can be described by a finite sct of ordinary diffe rential equations. This is satisfactory for a large class of practical systems. However. the existence of lime-delay elements, such as material or infonnation transport, of tcn renders such description unsatisfactory in accounting for important behaviors of many practical systems. Indeed. due largely to the current lack of effective metho dology for analysis and control design for such systems, the lime-delay elements arc often either neglected or poorly approximated, which frequently results in analysis and simulation of insufficient accuracy, which in turns leads to poor performance of the systems designed. Indeed, it has been demonstrated in the area of automatic control that a relatively small delay may lead to instability or significantly deteriora ted perfonnances for the corresponding closed-loop systems.

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Time delay systems

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Time Delay Systems

Stability is one of the most studied issues in the theory of time-delay systems, however the corresponding chapters of published volumes on time-delay systems do not include a comprehensive study of a counterpart of classical Lyapunov theory for linear delay free systems. The principal goal of the book is to fill this gap, and to provide readers with a systematic and exhaustive treatment of the basic concepts of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach to the stability analysis of linear time-delay systems. Time-Delay Systems: Lyapunov Functionals and Matrices will be of great use and interest to researchers and graduate students in automatic control and applied mathematics as well as practicing engineers involved in control system design.

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Time Delay Systems

This book comprehensively presents a recently developed novel methodology for analysis and control of time-delay systems. Time-delays frequently occurs in engineering and science. Such time-delays can cause problems (e.g. instability) and limit the achievable performance of control systems. The concise and self-contained volume uses the Lambert W function to obtain solutions to time-delay systems represented by delay differential equations. Subsequently, the solutions are used to analyze essential system properties and to design controllers precisely and effectively.

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Finite Spectrum Assignment for Time Delay Systems

The presence of considerable time delays in many industrial processes is well recognized and achievable performances of conventional unity feedback control systems are degraded if a process has a relatively large time delay compared to its time constants. In this case, dead time compensation is necessary in order to enhance the performances. The most popular scheme for such compensation is the Smith Predictor, but it is unsuitable for unstable or lightly damped processes because the compensated closed-loop system always contains the process poles themselves. An alternative scheme for delay elimination from the closed-loop is the finite spectrum assignment (FSA) strategy and it can arbitrarily assign the closed-loop spectrum. One may note that the Smith Predictor Control can be found in delay systems control books and many process control books, but the FSA control is rarely included in these books. It is therefore timely and desirable to fill this gap by writing a book which gives a comprehensive treatment of the FSA approach. This is useful and worthwhile since the FSA provides not only an alternative way but also certain advantages over the Smith-Predictor. The book presents the state-of-the-art of the finite spectrum assignment for time-delay systems in frequency domain. It mainly contains those works carried out recently by the authors in this field. Most of them have been published and others are awaiting publication. They are assembled together and reorganized in such a way that the presentation is logical, smooth and systematic.

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Dynamics of Nonlinear Time Delay Systems

Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different branches of science and technology as well as to the synchronization of their coupled versions. Last but not least, the presentation as a whole strives for a balance between the necessary mathematical description of the basics and the detailed presentation of real-world applications.

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Introduction to Time Delay Systems

The beginning of the 21st century can be characterized as the” time-delay boom” leading to numerous important results. The purpose of this book is two-fold, to familiarize the non-expert reader with time-delay systems and to provide a systematic treatment of modern ideas and techniques for experts. This book is based on the course ”Introduction to time-delay systems” for graduate students in Engineering and Applied Mathematics that the author taught in Tel Aviv University in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. The sufficient background to follow most of the material are the undergraduate courses in mathematics and an introduction to control. The book leads the reader from some basic classical results on time-delay systems to recent developments on Lyapunov-based analysis and design with applications to the hot topics of sampled-data and network-based control. The objective is to provide useful tools that will allow the reader not only to apply the existing methods, but also to develop new ones. It should be of interest for researchers working in the field, for graduate students in engineering and applied mathematics, and for practicing engineers. It may also be used as a textbook for a graduate course on time-delay systems.

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Topics in Time Delay Systems

Time delays are present in many physical processes due to the period of time it takes for the events to occur. Delays are particularly more pronounced in networks of interconnected systems, such as supply chains and systems controlled over c- munication networks. In these control problems, taking the delays into account is particularly important for performance evaluation and control system’s design. It has been shown, indeed, that delays in a controlled system (for instance, a c- munication delay for data acquisition) may have an “ambiguous” nature: they may stabilize the system, or, in the contrary,they may lead to deteriorationof the clos- loop performance or even instability, depending on the delay value and the system parameters. It is a fact that delays have stabilizing effects, but this is clearly con i- ing for human intuition. Therefore,speci c analysis techniquesand design methods are to be developed to satisfactorily take into account the presence of delays at the design stage of the control system. The research on time delay systems stretches back to 1960s and it has been very active during the last twenty years. During this period, the results have been presented at the main control conferences(CDC, ACC, IFAC), in specialized wo- shops (IFAC TDS series), and published in the leading journals of control engine- ing, systems and control theory, applied and numerical mathematics.